Formování ruského federalismu (1990–1994).
The Formation of Russian Federalism (1990–1994).
The propounded paper addresses center-periphery relations in the Russian Federation in early 1990s. In this period, Russia has undergone a process of transition from the “formal federalism” of the Soviet period to a more genuine system of federal relations, although this transition has not been fully accomplished yet. The first chapter analyses the main features of Russian federalism in the Soviet Union. The following two chapters focus on – among others – the “parade of sovereignties” (i.e. the process of emancipation of Russian regions vis-ŕ-vis Moscow) and on the relationship between political developments on the Union level and shaping of center-periphery relations in Russia. Developments in Chechnya and Tatarstan are also described. Chapter 4 deals with the Federation Treaty, signed in early 1992. Its role in establishing the Russian federál system is stressed here as well. Chapter 5 describes the efforts of some regions (oblasti and kraja), inspired by the achievements of the republics within Russian Federation, to enhance their powers vis-ŕ-vis Moscow. The main topic of the following chapter is the Russian Constitution, adopted in 1993, and its impact on the federal system. In 1994, a bilateral treaty was signed between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan. This treaty, which was an important milestone in the development of the center-periphery relations in Russia, is analyzed in the seventh chapter. The final chapter deals with some aspects of federal relations in Russia in early 90s, namely with ethnic and economic aspects.
Keywords: Russia, federalism, government, 1990-1994