Státní zřízení Polské lidové republiky.


  • Michal Kubát Institute of International Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague


The System of Government of the Polish People’s Republic

The text deals with the topic of the development of the system of government of the Polish People’s Republic (1944–1989). Formal system of institutions of „people’s“ Poland did not change so much. To take a portret of its development it is enough to divide it into two main periods. The first one takes years 1944–1952 and comprises events previous the adoption of constitution 1952 including so called small constitution of 1947. The sekond period started in 1952 and ended in 1989. It comprises long time of evolution of the system of government with a dramatic turning point of 1980–1983 and later gradual decomposition of non-democratic system of government in 1980s which culminated in 1989 when whole political system was changed. Firstly we examine the process of rise and formation of the Polish People’s Republic in 1940s. Then we characterize the small constitution adopted in 1947. After that we describe the politics codified by the communist constitution of 1952 and its later amendments. We also analyze the „state of war“ introduced in 1981. We will not forget about the Polish anti-communist government operating in exile. One chapter deals with the structure and functioning of Polish communist party ruling the country. Finally we define and classify the Polish non-democratic political systém according to the classical theories of totalitarian and authoritarian systems.

Keywords: Polish People´s Republic, government, communism